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A New Sensing Antenna for Cognitive Radio Front End and Wireless Communication Systems

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. With expeditious growth and exploding popularity of wireless technologies, the radio frequency spectrum has become a scarce commodity. Cognitive radio is a new technology that increases spectrum utilization and efficiency by making use of dynamic spectrum access techniques. This paper introduces a new antenna design for cognitive radio wireless communication systems. The antenna is printed on FR4 substrate and has the capability to operate from 3.0GHz to 14GHz band with a criteria that S11<-10dB which provides a very wide usable fraction bandwidth of 129 %. The antenna consists of a modified half circular radiator with two rectangular slots on it and a ground plane on the reverse side of the substrate. The proposed antenna has the sensing capabilities for cognitive radio which detects the unused spectrum in its operating band from 3.0GHz to 14GHz. Design antenna has a desired omnidirectional radiation pattern required for channel sensing.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, Microstrip antennas, Transmitting antennas, Ultra wideband antennas

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsrk-2015-p0172-0180

 

Eye Color Pattern During Isolation Indicates Stress-Coping Style in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L.

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. It has previously been shown that changes in eye color pattern (ECP) in Oreochromis niloticus is a consequence of a fish’s relative position in the social hierarchy. However, it is still an open question if ECP during isolation is correlated to stress coping styles in fish such as ventilation rate (VR). To evaluate this, 94 all-male juvenile O. niloticus of similar size were introduced in a novel environment and were isolated in aquaria for 7 days. The ECP and VR of each fish were recorded daily during the isolation period. Eye color change was observed to be fractional changes of the color of the iris and sclera around the pupil which were transformed into scores ranging from 0 (no darkening) to 8 (total darkening). Results of the study showed that ECP was significantly correlated with VR, both individual daily values (r = 0.48, n = 658, P<0.001) and mean values (r = 0.68, n = 94, P<0.001). Thus, ECP indicates stress coping style in O. niloticus. Based on the trend of ECP values during isolation, fish with ECP values of less than 4 after the isolation period of 7 days may be classified as proactive individuals while those with ECP values of more than 4, as reactive individuals. The ECP is a good, easy and inexpensive tool for assessing both alertness and stress level in the fish.

Keywords: behavioral coping style, eye color pattern, Oreochromis niloticus, stress, ventilation rate

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsrk-2015-p0181-0186

 

Distribution, Traditinal Use and Conservation of Geophyte Plants Growing Around Keşiş Mountain, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey

Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License

Abstract. Erzincan province is mostly located in Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Keşiş (Esence) Mountain. is one of the most important plant areas and endemic plant centers of Turkey. The mountain take parts between Üzümlü and Çayırlı districts. Bulbous, tuberous and rhizome plants are known as geophytes. In this study, Geophyte plant diversity of Çayırlı district located in the eastern foothills of Keşiş Mountain was determined. The plant samples were collected in the vegetation periods between 2011 and 2013 around the district and the surrounding mountainous areas. All of the collected plant samples and their habitats were photographed during field surveys. At the end of the studies, totally 50 geophyte plant taxa were identified among 22 genera and 13 families. It was determined that 26 taxa (52%) of the total taxa belonged to Irano-Turanian, six taxa (12%) to Euro-Siberian, and four taxa (8%) to Mediterranean phytogeographical region elements. Ethnobotanical aspects of these plants were determined during the field studies and given in the study. Twelve taxa (24%) of them were found as endemic to Turkey. Threat categories of these endemic taxa were also determined in the study. This is the first study in the province to determine geophyte plant diversity. Determining the geophyte flora is not only important for protecting the plant diversity, but also important for the economy and ecoturism. As seen in the study, most of the geophytes have economic importance for their use as food, for medicinal, and ornamental purposes.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Conservation, Çayırlı, Eastern Anatolia, Endemic, Ethnobotany, Geophyte plants, Keşiş mountain

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsrk-2015-p0187-0197

 

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