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Does FDI Promote MENA Region’s Environment Quality? Pollution Halo or Pollution Haven Hypothesis

Abstract. In the context of increasing globalisation of capital flows, the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on the environment is a topic of hot debate. Environmentalists have argued that gaps in national environmental standards draw the developed countries' dirtiest industries to developing countries, creating "pollution havens" in environmental standards. Free marketers counter with claims that global market forces diffuse best management practices and those foreign companies, typically from the developed countries, create "pollution halos" in developing countries. This paper examines which hypothesis is valid in MENA selected region. The results indicate the validity of pollution Halo hypothesis in the region.

Key words: FDI; Environment; Pollution Halo Hypothesis; Pollution Haven Hypothesis; MENA Region

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsres-2013-p092-100

 

The Environmental Scrutiny of Land Use Changes and its Effects on Some Soil Physical and Nutrition Characteristics in Iran

Abstract. One of the most important issues that cause the threat of renewable natural resources and ultimately humans will be destroyed pasture vegetation and the waste of fertile. On the other hand population growth and the increasing need of food in recent century, have led the farmers in different countries around the world including Iran, benefiting from the pastures and forests for the cultivation. At present soil degradation is a serious issue and it has economic and social harmful effects in local, national and global levels. Today, the researcher is unanimous that change is one of main factor to degradation and change in soil characteristic. Considering issue, study land use change and affect these changes on some soil degradation index done in Friedan region of Esfahan province in about 2000 ha. Results of this research presented to increased bulk density, decreasing porosity, organic matter, going out macro nutrients follow of degradation in natural rangeland and converting them to abandon rain fed. Finally, use of these land according to capacity of use in right program and management can decrease of intensify degradation and loss of resources.

Key words: Land Use Changes, Soil Degradation Indicators, Management Programming, Esfahan province

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsres-2013-p101-106

 

Biotechnology Application for the Improvement of Nigeria’s Indigenous Tree Species: The Challenges of Micropropagation

Abstract. Nigeria is blessed with many indigenous tree species, which spread across the vegetation in its territory. These tree species provide food, fuel, employment and herbal medicine to the population. Uncollected and uncharacterized germplasm, pests and diseases, seed dormancy are some of the factors that militate against the improvement of indigenous tree species. This paper discusses biotechnological application challenges as it affects in tropical tree species improvement. The problems encountered in the application were classified into Biotechnology factors (asepsis, culture environment, and culture medium) and the micropropagation factors (lack of infrastructure, poor explant, poor power supply etc). Recommendations were suggested on how to overcome these challenges.

Key words: Biotechnology, Germplasm, Nigeria, Tree Species

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsres-2013-p107-114

 

Analyses of Heavy Metals in Water and Sediment of Bindare Stream, Chikaji Industrial Area Sabon Gari

IJSRES-13-14

Key words: Analyses, Heavy Metals, Water, Sediment, Bindare Stream, Chikaji Area

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsres-2013-p115-121

 

Elemental Analysis of Flesh, Bones and Gills of Oreochromis niloticus Consumed in Nigeria for Improvement of Nutrition and Health

Abstract. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to determine elemental concentrations in flesh, bones and gills of Oreochromis niloticus fish, an abundant and popularly consumed fish in Nigeria as a step to improvement of nutrition and health in the country. One hundred and twenty samples were collected from the research sites of the Ahmadu Bello University Reservoir. The samples were irradiated using a neutron flux of 5 x 1011 ncm-2s-1in inner site of the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1). Results obtained indicate that calcium (5,000-186,600mg/kg) dominated in the organs, followed by potassium (3,400-12,300mg/kg) and the least was samarium (0.13-0.36mg/kg). Our result also shows that sample location had no significant (p≥0.05) effect on concentration of the elements in the organs. The data obtained illustrated that Calcium, Magnesium and Manganese are predominant in bones and gills. Chlorine, Potassium and Sodium were found to be highly concentrated in the flesh and bones. While Vanadium, Lanthanum, Samarium and Uranium are more prominent in gills, Bromine is more visible in flesh and gills. In general, bones and gills were found to have the highest distribution of major elements. Manganese concentrations obtained in these organs are above the WHO reference values and apart from Manganese, the concentrations of Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium, and Chlorine obtained in these organs are above the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry recommendation. The study reveals that Oreochromis niloticus fish is a good bio-indicator of an aquatic environment pollution and fresh water contamination.

Key words: Oreochromis niloticus, nutrition, trace elements, bio-indicator, INAA

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsres-2013-p122-131

 

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